Western Hummingbird Partnership collects and updates a variety of hummingbird data. We strive to maintain the highest level of quality and integrity in our information.


Hummingbirds live only in the western hemisphere, where they are the second most diverse family of birds (approximately 340 species). Their diversity is well represented among North American bird families with 57 species, of which 40% are endemic to North America, 14% are substantially shared among the nations, 30% are migratory, and 14% are of high conservation concern (Berlanga et al., 2010).

There are indications that at least some hummingbird populations are declining. Partners in Flight (PIF) had identified three of the 13 neotropical migrants the breed in the USA and Canada and over-winter in Mexico as Watch List Species: Costa’s, Calliope, and Rufous, and a fourth: Lucifer, as a Stewardship Species (Rich et al 2004). The USFWS 2008 Birds of Conservation Concern also listed Costa’s, Calliope, Lucifer, and Rufous as well as Allen’s, Blue-throated, and Buff-bellied; seven species in total nationally.

Scientific NameOrderFamilyEnglish Common NameTaxon Sequence
Glaucis hirsutusTrochilidaeApodiformesRufous-breasted Hermit821
Campylopterus (Phaeochroa) cuvieriiTrochilidaeApodiformesScaly-breasted Hummingbird830
Campylopterus curvipennisTrochilidaeApodiformesWedge-tailed Sabrewing831
Campylopterus excellensTrochilidaeApodiformesLong-tailed Sabrewing832
Campylopterus rufusTrochilidaeApodiformesRufous Sabrewing833
Campylopterus hemileucurusTrochilidaeApodiformesViolet Sabrewing834
Florisuga mellivoraTrochilidaeApodiformesWhite-necked Jacobin835
Colibri thalassinusTrochilidaeApodiformesGreen (Mexican) Violet-ear837.3
Anthracothorax prevostiiTrochilidaeApodiformesGreen-breasted Mango838
Abeillia abeilleiTrochilidaeApodiformesEmerald-chinned Hummingbird849
Lophornis brachylophusTrochilidaeApodiformesShort-crested Coquette850
Lophornis helenaeTrochilidaeApodiformesBlack-crested Coquette852
Chlorostilbon auricepsTrochilidaeApodiformesGolden-crowned Emerald855
Chlorostilbon forficatusTrochilidaeApodiformesCozumel Emerald856
Chlorostilbon canivetiiTrochilidaeApodiformesCanivet’s Emerald857
Cynanthus sordidusTrochilidaeApodiformesDusky Hummingbird863
Cynanthus latirostrisTrochilidaeApodiformesBroad-billed Hummingbird864
Thalurania ridgwayiTrochilidaeApodiformesMexican Woodnymph866
Hylocharis eliciaeTrochilidaeApodiformesBlue-throated Goldentail873
Basilinna  (Hylocharis) leucotisTrochilidaeApodiformesWhite-eared Hummingbird874
Basilinna (Hylocharis) xantusiiTrochilidaeApodiformesXantus’s Hummingbird875
Amazilia candidaTrochilidaeApodiformesWhite-bellied Emerald879
Amazilia cyanocephalaTrochilidaeApodiformesAzure-crowned Hummingbird884
Amazilia beryllinaTrochilidaeApodiformesBerylline Hummingbird885
Amazilia cyanuraTrochilidaeApodiformesBlue-tailed Hummingbird886
Amazilia yucatanensisTrochilidaeApodiformesBuff-bellied Hummingbird890
Amazilia rutilaTrochilidaeApodiformesCinnamon Hummingbird891
Amazilia violicepsTrochilidaeApodiformesViolet-crowned Hummingbird892
Amazilia viridifronsTrochilidaeApodiformesGreen-fronted Hummingbird893
Eupherusa eximiaTrochilidaeApodiformesStripe-tailed Hummingbird894
Eupherusa cyanophrysTrochilidaeApodiformesBlue-capped Hummingbird895
Eupherusa poliocercaTrochilidaeApodiformesWhite-tailed Hummingbird896
Lampornis viridipallensTrochilidaeApodiformesGreen-throated Mountain-gem903
Lampornis amethystinusTrochilidaeApodiformesAmethyst-throated Hummingbird905
Lampornis clemenciaeTrochilidaeApodiformesBlue-throated Hummingbird906
Lamprolaima rhamiTrochilidaeApodiformesGarnet-throated Hummingbird910
Eugenes fulgensTrochilidaeApodiformesMagnificent (Rivoli’s) Hummingbird912
Heliothryx barrotiTrochilidaeApodiformesPurple-crowned Fairy914
Heliomaster longirostrisTrochilidaeApodiformesLong-billed Starthroat915
Heliomaster constantiiTrochilidaeApodiformesPlain-capped Starthroat916
Doricha enicuraTrochilidaeApodiformesSlender Sheartail920
Doricha elizaTrochilidaeApodiformesMexican Sheartail921
Tilmatura dupontiiTrochilidaeApodiformesSparkling-tailed Woodstar922
Calothorax luciferTrochilidaeApodiformesLucifer Hummingbird923
Calothorax pulcherTrochilidaeApodiformesBeautiful Hummingbird924
Archilochus colubrisTrochilidaeApodiformesRuby-throated Hummingbird925
Archilochus alexandriTrochilidaeApodiformesBlack-chinned Hummingbird926
Calypte annaTrochilidaeApodiformesAnna’s Hummingbird929
Calypte costaeTrochilidaeApodiformesCosta’s Hummingbird930
Selasphorus calliopeTrochilidaeApodiformesCalliope Hummingbird931
Atthis heloisaTrochilidaeApodiformesBumblebee Hummingbird932
Atthis elliotiTrochilidaeApodiformesWine-throated Hummingbird933
Selasphorus platycercusTrochilidaeApodiformesBroad-tailed Hummingbird934
Selasphorus rufusTrochilidaeApodiformesRufous Hummingbird935
Selasphorus sasinTrochilidaeApodiformesAllen’s Hummingbird936

Research Needs

Despite the wide distribution and cultural popularity of hummingbirds, knowledge of their basic life history and biology has many fundamental gaps. For example, all of the Birds of North America (BNA) accounts for hummingbirds identify information gaps in breeding biology as a priority for future research. Nests are undescribed for over 60% of the 48 currently threatened or endangered hummingbird species (Wethington and Finley 2009). There is a paucity of demographic information, including information on birthrate and mortality. The physiology of hummingbirds during reproduction is almost completely unknown. Habitat requirements for all life phases are not fully understood for most species.

Due to hummingbirds’ small size, rapid movement, high-pitched vocalizations, unique flight abilities, and other factors, techniques used to monitor most landbirds generally fail to provide adequate hummingbird population information. Long-term population trend data are considered adequate for only four of the 16 species that regularly breed in the USA and Canada (Rich et al. 2004). Population trend data for other hummingbird species in the Western Hemisphere are insufficient or non-existent.


Rich T D, Beardmore C J, Berlanga H, Blancher P J, Bradstreet M S W, Butcher G S, Demarest D, Dunn E H, Hunter W C, Iñigo-Elias E, Kennedy J A, Martell A, Panjabi A, Pashley D N, Rosenberg KV, Rustay C,Wendt S and Will T. 2004. Partners In Flight North American Landbird Conservation Plan. Cornell Lab of Ornithology, Ithaca, NY.

Wethington, S. M. and Finley N. 2009. Addressing Hummingbird conservation needs: An Initial Assessment. In Proceedings of the Fourth International Partners In Flight Conference.: Tundra to Tropics


Looking for data about hummingbird populations or a place to submit your research data? There are several sources available.

The Avian Knowledge Network (AKN) is a partnership of people, institutions and government agencies supporting the conservation of birds and their habitats based on data, the adaptive management paradigm, and the best available science. AKN partners act to improve awareness, purpose, access to, and use of data and tools at scales ranging from individual locations to administrative regions (e.g., management areas, states, countries) and species ranges.

eBird is a real-time, online checklist program where observers may submit their data. These data also provide rich sources of information about bird abundance and distribution at a variety of spatial and temporal scales.

aVerAves México is the site for submitting bird observations in Mexico and serves as the eBird equivalent for that country. It also includes tools that help analyze observations.

Citizen Science

Citizen Science projects have immense value. In these projects, volunteers record and then submit their observations of the natural world, according to instructions (i.e., protocols) provided by scientists. Citizen Scientists increase their knowledge and appreciation of nature, while making meaningful contributions to nature conservation. Help hummingbirds by joining one of the projects below:


pollen collection guide

Pollen Collection Guide

The Pollen Guide is a document containing pollen collection information and protocols. The file also includes in-depth descriptions of various types of pollen that are most favorable to hummingbirds. Click on the photo to view the file and learn more about pollen collection.

Instruction Videos for Pollen Extraction: